This month sees the beginning of the most significant criminal trial in Catalonia’s history, which takes Catalan, Spanish and European politics into a new stage. Our main feature, A country on trial, followed by an interview with the prestigious lawyer, Jaume Alonso-Cuevillas, take a look at some of the main points in the process, and provide an overview of the key arguments of the political and social leaders. For the first time in the history of the European Union, MPs and the president of a parliament will be tried and accused of rebellion for having organised a self-determination referendum. International organisations have asked to be present to follow the proceedings to ensure the defendants get a fair trial, but the Supreme Court declined the request, as well as declining many of the witnesses put forward by the defence. The trial will last a few months and the verdict will not be known until after the local and European elections on May 26. In any case, the use of violence, the main part of the accusation, will have to be proved. The charge of rebellion, according to the criminal code, refers to violent and tumultuous uprising, and requires the use of violence. That wasn’t the case of the organisers of the Oct 1 referendum, nor the case of the 2.3 million citizens who participated in it. The only violence clearly demonstrated was on behalf of the Spanish police sent with the specific purpose of preventing the vote. In fact, a German high court rejected the crime of rebellion. It’s time for the Spanish judiciary to show whether it sticks to European criteria, or decides to divert from it and go for a prosecution built on strictly political reasons.